The Scugog Carrying Place

By Melissa Cole, Curator

“Worn smooth like a Buffalo run, caused by the action of countless feet for many generations, many years before white men entered this part of Canada.”
– Samuel Pedlar Manuscript, Frame # 326

In honour of Indigenous Month we are taking a look at an interactive map that is found in our exhibition: A Carrying Place: Oshawa’s Indigenous Story.

From the earliest days the First Nations used pathways and “carrying places,” or portages for hunting and trading. Scugog Carrying Place is one of several routes and carrying places that connected the interior of the Province to Lake Ontario.

This area of Oshawa was an important carrying route for First Nations.  The Oshawa Creek was much larger than it is today and groups would congregate here every spring and fall to fish.

2018-05-23 01.20.52

Let’s take a look at the map featured in our exhibit.  Numerous maps were used to create this map.  We wanted to ensure that we were placing the carrying place trail fairly accurately; it is difficult to be exact since there are very few maps which note its location.  We used the latest Google map of the area, a topographic map, and a map from 1795 called ‘C31 Whitby Township Plan’ created by Augustus Jones and William Chewett, who were early surveyors of the township.   Using these three maps for reference and overlaying them against each other, while noting the changing shoreline along Lake Ontario over the years, we were able to place this early portage route that originally ran through the forest and connected Lake Ontario with Lakes Scugog and Simcoe and Kawartha Lakes.  Many have suggested that is basically follows today’s Simcoe Street.

In an interview with Dave Mowat, Consultant, Membership and Land Supervisor at Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation, he stated, “there is the Old Scugog Carrying Place Route that came down from the lakeshore at Oshawa made its way up to Lake Scugog here and eventually to Georgian Bay.  If you can think of how the land was utilized before we had the 401 before we had all the highways and byways when you think about how the land was utilized some of our original roads are on old portage trails and carrying places, Simcoe Street relatively follows the original Scugog Carrying Place.”

The trail can best be described as an inverted “Y”.  From Lake Ontario, one branch went northward by Harmony Creek and the other by the Oshawa Creek. Canoes would have been used as far up the creek as they could go before portaging.  The two footpaths converged near the present Columbus and then united to cross to the location of present day Port Perry.

There are numerous archaeological sites found along the carrying place.  Many of these sites are located along the eastern branch of the Scugog Carrying Place.  Two of these sites are located in Oshawa.  Grandview Site, a fifteenth century ancestral Wendat (Huron) village, was located within several hundred yards of the eastern branch of Scugog Carrying Place along Harmony Creek.  MacLeod Site was also a fifteenth century ancestral Wendat (Huron) village that was located further west from Grandview Site.  These villages relocated and migrated north.  There were numerous other sites found along the trail outside of Oshawa.  The oldest sites dating between 1380 and 1450 CE are found at the Grandview and MacLeod Sites.  The ancestral Wendat vacated the area around the Scugog Carrying Place by the end of the sixteenth century and migrated north into Huron-Wendat territory.  This trail most likely fell into disuse until the Mississauga came to Lake Scugog and Lake Ontario.  The Mississaugas used the trail at some point after 1700 and it was in use in 1795 when the first survey was carried out by Augustus Jones.

Let’s take a look at the specific areas noted on this map.  There is the actual Scugog Carrying Place route which generally followed what is now Simcoe Street in Oshawa and Port Perry and connected Lake Scugog and Simcoe, with the Kawartha Lakes and Lake Ontario.

2018-05-23 01.21.12

Scugog Carrying Place – the light just west of the trail is MacLeod; the light along the eastern trail is the Grandview Site.

MacLead and Grandview Sites are highlighted on this map to give our visitors an indication of how close these sites were to this trail.  Also noted on this map is the possible location of Benjamin Wilson’s homestead that as can be seen from this map is now located somewhere in the lake away from the current Lake Ontario shoreline – this is due to the fact that the shoreline has receded over the years.  The last item highlighted on this map is an Ossuary in Uxbridge, that dates to 1490 C.E. consisted of secondary burials. (Every so many years the first burials were dug up and reburied in a communal burial plot, a ceremony and feast would have been held.  The Wendat believe there are two souls with a person, one goes with the person in the ground and the other goes to the Creator.  So every one of the bodies that is laid to rest in this burial have a soul.)  This ossuary was most likely related to the Grandview Population.

If you wish to see this map in person and discover more about our local Indigenous story here in Oshawa, be sure to visit us at the Oshawa Museum.


Sources:

The Archaeological History of the Wendat to A.D. 1651: An Overview. Ronald F. Williamson, 2014

Scugog Carrying Place: A Frontier Pathway. Grant Karcich, 2013

Forgotten Pathways of the Trent. Lesley Frost, 1973

Interview, Dave Mowat, Consultant, Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation. May 24, 2017

Advertisements

Profiling: Terry Kelly

By Jill Passmore, Visitor Experience Co-ordinator

Terence Vincent Kelly was born in Toronto on May 28, 1931. He and his twin brother John were brought up in Belfast, Northern Ireland. At age 16, the young men returned to Canada where Kelly eventually studied law. He moved to Oshawa in 1949 and worked at General Motors for several years. In 1956, he started his own law firm, which is still in operation today and known as ‘Kelly Greenway Bruce.’

a987221

114 King St. E. in 1984.  This is still the address for Kelly Greenway Bruce

Many knew him throughout the region as a sports fanatic who took every opportunity to watch and support the many sports that were played in Oshawa and abroad. His love of sports and community involvement came together in the 1960s, when local citizens raised funds and campaigned to have a new sports complex built in Oshawa. Terry Kelly was the one who spearheaded the campaign and served as the Finance Chairman for the project. Nonetheless, he was also a driving force in many other local and provincial charities.

File4910-A997.43.1

A997.43.1

Mr. Kelly was inducted into the Oshawa Sports Hall of Fame in 1995 and the Oshawa Walk of Fame in 2007 and served as chairman of the Canada Sports Hall of Fame Selection Committee. His community work was recognized with many prestigious awards including the Centennial medal in 1967 and the Queen’s Silver Jubilee Medal in 1977, Queen’s Gold Jubilee Medal in 2002 and Queen’s Diamond Jubilee Medal in 2012.

In 2005, the Ontario Justice Education Network established the Kelly Cup. The OJEN is a non-governmental agency who develops innovative educational tools that introduce young people to the justice system, help them understand the law, and build their legal capability. The Kelly Cup is a series of competitive mock trials for students, whose past winners include O’Neill CVI from Oshawa and All Saints CSS from Whitby.

Terry Kelly passed away in 2015 after practicing law for over six decades. In his obituary, son Tim Kelly said, “He wanted to see Oshawa thrive.” After living in Oshawa for over sixty years, Terry Kelly saw a lot of change in Oshawa. He did his best to ensure that people were active, and had a safe place to play sports. Before he died, Terry lived to see the name of the Civic Fields changed to Terry Kelly Field and the project officially came full circle.


Sources:

https://www.durhamregion.com/news-story/5263269-terry-kelly-celebrated-oshawa-lawyer-sports-fan-dead-at-83/

https://www.genealogiequebec.com/necro/ontario/toronto/the-globe-and-mail-toronto-on/1590321/KELLY-Terence-Vincent/obituary

http://ojen.ca/en/oocmt/central-ontario-greater-toronto-golden-horseshoe/durham-region-kelly-cup

Llewellyn Hall

By Melissa Cole, Curator

“Formerly the residence of Mr. R.S. McLaughlin and became the possession of the Foreign Mission Board in the year 1919.  It was known as Llewellyn Hall and the name continued.  It is a two and a half storey brick building, on one of the best residential streets in the Town.  It has beautiful grounds, magnificent trees and tennis court, and is artistically finished within as well as attractive without.”

~The Second Prospectus, 1924 Llewellyn Hall

Opening in the fall of 2018 at the Oshawa Museum will be an exhibition that looks at Community Health in the 20th Century: An Oshawa Perspective.   What does Llewellyn Hall have to do with community health?  It was utilized for a brief time as Oshawa’s Maternity Ward.

The home was ordered to be built by James Odgers Guy who was a coal dealer in Oshawa.  He resided in this home with his wife Rachel and their children.  The name of the home was Llewellyn Hall, in memory of a son named Llewellyn Harold who had passed away.  They lived in the home until 1897.

James Odgers Guy

James O. Guy

Robert Samuel McLaughlin of Tyrone purchased the home from the Guys.  Robert lived in the home with his wife Adelaide and all five daughters, Eileen, Mildred, Isobel, Hilda and Eleanor were born there.  This was the McLaughlin Family home until 1917, when they moved into Parkwood Estate.

Robert and Adelaide McLaughlin, under the names of the McLaughlin Carriage Company, the McLaughlin Motor Car Company and Chevrolet Motor Car Company of Canada, gifted their home to the Oshawa General Hospital, for $1, to be used as a maternity hospital.

Adelaide McLaughlin, who was president of the Hospital Auxiliary, stated at the formal opening of the maternity hospital that she hoped “all future mothers in this house may be as happy as I was when here”.  Inspector of Hospitals, Dr. Helen McMurchie of the Ministry of Health for the Province of Ontario stated that “every hospital must have a satisfactory maternity wing and Oshawa has successfully followed this direction”.

Maternity Home

The first baby girl was born the day it formally opened on Wednesday July 12 at 1917, delivered to a Mrs. F. Patfield by Dr. F.J Rundle.  In 1918, the Spanish Flu swept through the Maternity Ward.  It was reported that ninety-five percent of the babies in the Ward passed away.

One of the last babies to be born at the Maternity Ward was in 1919 before it was sold to the Presbyterian Church in Canada to be a home for children in missionary families of the United Church of Canada.  For the next twenty-nine years, Adelaide McLaughlin offered her support through various means, financially, socially and advisory to the residents, Matrons and staff.

The final years of Lewellyn Hall were spent as the location of education and worship, after being purchased in 1948, by the Oshawa Hebrew Congregation, known as the Beth Zion Synagogue.  By 1952 the number Jewish families in Oshawa outgrew the space and the building was torn down to build a new synagogue, which still stands today.

This house nurtured many lives that crossed it’s threshold.  Built for the Guy Family and for fifteen years it was home to Colonel Sam and Adelaide McLaughlin and their five daughters and it was a home for Protestant missionary children and before its end was the core for education and worship.

The Month That Was – June 1919

All articles appeared in the June 13, 1919 edition of The Ontario Reformer

Oshawa Complimented on Her Great Industries by Gov.-General of Canada
A felicitous occasion long to be remembered in the goals of the town

June was in her brightest and happiest mood on Thursday, the 12th last, to greet the Vice Royal party who made Oshawa its first gubernatorial visit. Central Ontario and Oshawa, the centre of this district, looked their best dressed in Nature’s luxuriant given, adorned with a profusion of flowers and foliage, when Oshawa enjoyed her first visit from a Governor General of Canada. The Duke of Devonshire, and party, consisting of his consort, Her Grace the Duchess of Devonshire, and party,  consisting of his consort, Her Grace and Duchess of Devonshire, and two daughters, Their Honors Lady Dorothy and Lady Rachel Cavendish, Miss Egeren, Lord Richard Nevill and three A.D.C.’s- Capts, Cator, Harold MacMillan, and Lord Haddington.

His Excellency and suite arrived about 10:15 a.m. in the Governor-General’s private car, over the Grand Trunk Railway. They were received at the depot by the Mayor and Council, War Veterans, Citizens’ Band and a concourse of representative citizens in all walks of life, many of whom met him in their autos.

stove ad

Crowds are thrilled by a Bold Airman

Lieut. Locklear, a former army instructor, was the flashing comet across the aviation sky at Atlantic City recently at the aerial field staged by the Second Pan-American Aeronautic Congress. The crowds were thrilled by his daring aerial acrobatics, which included changing planes in mid-air, 2500 ft. up, and crawling all over an aeroplane speeding at 80 miles an hour.

Lieut. Locklear first went into the air with Lieut. S. Short, who rose to a height of 3000 ft. They were closely followed by Lieut. M. Elliot, who mounted just above them. The air was found too bumpy at that level, and the machine descended 500 ft. Lieut. Locklear here crept out over the cockpit, climbed up on top of the upper wing. Standing up he rode across the field 2500 ft. up until over the grandstand.

Then as Lieut. Elliott, by clever jockeying, hovered overhead with a rope ladder dangling from beneath the machine. Lieut. Locklear suddenly stretched his full length, clutched the rungs on the second effort and the next instant was a human pendulum swinging in space beneath the upper plane. The machines were making more than 80 miles an hour at the time. For two minutes he swung there and then was seen to climb the ladder and into the cockpit behind Lieut. Elliott.

When he had descended to a lower level, he proceeded to do stunts all over the plane, standing on top of the wings, hanging head down from the landing gear clinging to a skid by one hand beneath the tin of the right wing and crawling out to perch on the tail.

ice cream ad

Don’t want any Boom in Oshawa

Because the prospects for industrial expansions in Oshawa are bright at the present time, a real estate boom threatens. In fact, it has already begun. Here is one instance which has come to our notice within the last month or two, which indicates, the somewhat general, movement towards a real estate boom. A front street property, which was offered for sale at $8,500, jumped to over $10,000, when it became more or less generally known that a considerable increase in the capacity and production of our great industry was pretty well assured. Dwelling house prices have been boosted accordingly.

If this has resulted from a rumor, what will be the outcome of an authentic announcement, such as was made in the Reformer last week. It is likely to precipitate a disastrous real estate craze and cause residential property prices to soar out the reach of the average Toller with the brain or brawn, making this too expensive a town to live in, directly interfering with the expansion of the industries, which everyone so much desires. The reaction, which must follow, is self-evident. Therefore, anyone having a property to dispose of should not put the price at an exorbitant figure if they did not wish to balk the town in the promised progress coming to it, if property owners do not thus close the door on those who would otherwise come in, and who are needed to make good the contemplated development.

duchess of devonshire

Don’ts for Children

Here are some warnings, which safety campaigners have prepared for parents and teachers to impress upon children whenever the opportunity offers:

Don’t step off the sidewalk without looking in both directions. The left is most important, because traffic should be coming from that direction.

Don’t walk behind a street car without looking carefully for automobiles or other street cars coming from the other direction.

Don’t run. If others are with you hold hands tightly and don’t separate. The driver can miss you if you become confused, providing you stay together, but if you separate one of you is almost sure to be struck.

Don’t read letters or books when crossing the street. Keep your mind on the fact that there is danger and you must be on guard.

Don’t take a chance, if the streets are slippery because an automobile is approaching slowly. A quick step is impossible, and the machine may skid.

Don’t run after a ball f it goes into the street without stopping first at the curb to make sure there are no machines approaching.

Don’t be a “jay-walker.” Cross the street at street corners.

Don’t play in the streets.

Don’t “hop on” for a ride on someone’s spare tire. The greatest danger is getting off without being able to see in all directions.

wrigleys ad

Where The Streets Get Their Names – Raglan Road

By Lisa Terech, Community Engagement

Near the northern border of the City of Oshawa is the village of Raglan. It was named in honour of Lord Raglan, a British commander in the Crimean War, coincidentally the man after whom raglan sleeves is named.  Before 1855, the community was known as Newto(w)n, and previously before that O’Boyle’s Corners.

OCM_Jan26_2016_306

1895 County of Ontario Atlas map of Raglan; note the main east-west road is named ‘Alma Street’

While boasting a humble population (150, according to the 1869 County of Ontario Directory), it was a bustling community, services by a stage coach which ran from Oshawa through Columbus, Raglan, Prince Albert, Borelia, and Port Perry, to Beaverton. When the stage coach was at its height, Raglan had hotel, several stores, grist & saw mill, blacksmith shop, coach factory, dress maker’s shop, shoemaker’s shop, and Willard’s General Store.  The community was also served with two schools (SS No. 8 and SS No. 9) and two churches: Bible Christian and Episcopal Methodist.  Finally, the community boasted a division of the Sons of Temperance, a group against alcohol who sought to create sweeping reforms that would eliminate “local groggeries” and bar rooms.

SC28015061010380

From the Oshawa Museum postcard collection

In the mid-20th century, there were some from the community who felt that the automobile impacted the nature of village life.  When the roads were unpaved and under maintained, and before car culture was pervasive, “a person had to rely on the local general store and had to live right where he worked,” remembered Charles Luke, a Raglan resident and former stage coach driver.  The 1961 Census showed how the community changed: for every one person working on a farm, there were eight living in East Whitby Township but working in a city.

SC28015061010391

Raglan Church, from the Oshawa Museum postcard collection

Perhaps the largest landmark for Raglan today is White Feather Farms, a farm and country store, first established in 1988.

Raglan Road received its current name around the same time Columbus Road was named. Previously, the east-west road through the village was known as Alma Street, while outside the village it was simply Concession Road 9. Understanding the history of this street name and its changes requires an understanding of municipal changes through the years.  In 1974, the Township of East Whitby was annexed by the City of Oshawa; fast forward to the 1980s, and the City was undertaking a review of street names, prompted by the expansion of emergency and 911 services.  During this process, a number of streets were found repeated in the former East Whitby Township and City of Oshawa.  Alma Street proved to be a challenge, because in the City of Oshawa, there was an Alma Street by the Hospital.  Alma by the hospital was named for two women influential with its establishment; Alma in Raglan was likely in honour of the Battle of Alma in which Lord Raglan was the British Commander.

SC28015061010381

From the Oshawa Museum postcard collection

It was during the 1980s that the City of Oshawa decided to name previously unnamed concession roads, and it was recommended that these names are consistent with surrounding municipalities (if applicable).  The Town of Whitby was already calling this road Raglan Road, and in the late 1980s, the City of Oshawa officially adopted this name as well.