When is Thanksgiving Day?

When is Thanksgiving Day? – It seems very strange that the Governor has not yet proclaimed a Thanksgiving Day for the present year.  There surely never was a year during which we as a people here received greater cause to be thankful. Three times have we been threatened with lawless invasion, and still we are saved from the devastations of war.  The dryness of the spring, the coolness of the summer, and the wet weather of the harvest threatened to destroy our crops, but out barns are filled plenty. Cholera has afflicted nearly every other nation, whilst we have been mercifully spared. Add to these the opening of a market after the abolition of the Reciprocity Treaty, the good prices obtained for our produce, the preservation of the land from internal dissentions, and we have a year which God has marked by a great display of his Providential care and goodness towards us.

Oshawa Vindicator, November 14, 1866

Why was there confusion about Thanksgiving Day? In Canada, Thanksgiving is the second Monday in October, right? Well, it’s only been observed consistently on that day since 1957.

The origins and basis for Canadian Thanksgiving isn’t as well known as the American holiday.  It is important to note that Indigenous people have had celebrations of thanks for good harvest and successfully faring through the winter well before the arrival of colonizing settlers.

Canadian Thanksgiving is frequently tied to the story of Martin Frobisher who was one of many to search for the Northwest Passage.  He made three attempts, and on his third in 1578, there was a celebration on what is now known as Frobisher Island.  Another possible origin for the holiday could be the harvest celebrations that occurred in New France in the 1600s.  The popularity of Thanksgiving increased in the late 1700s/early 1800s upon the arrival of United Empire Loyalists.  While ‘Thanksgiving’ was being celebrated, it was informal, being recognised by those celebrating and not as a publicly recognised holiday.

Regarding the article that appeared in the Vindicator in 1866, Thanksgiving had been declared by the Governor General for the Province of Canada (today’s Ontario and Quebec) six times between 1850 and 1865 for specific reasons, as follows:

Date of ObservanceReasons
Thursday, 3 Jan. 1850For God’s mercies and cessation of grievous disease
Wednesday, 4 June 1856For restoration of Peace with Russia
Thursday, 3 Nov. 1859For abundant harvest and continuation of Peace
Thursday, 6 Dec. 1860For God’s mercies
Wednesday, 11 Nov. 1863For abundant harvest and continuation of Peace
Wednesday, 18 Oct. 1865For God’s mercies

As it wasn’t a consistent holiday, it’s no wonder the editors of the paper were questioning if and when the holiday would have been declared.

Thanksgiving Day has been observed every year since 1879.  Initially, Thanksgiving was held on a Thursday in November, but in 1957, it was officially declared to be the second Monday in October.

The changing date of Thanksgiving was noted on in the diaries of a man named William Elliot. The diaries are part of the archival collection of the Oshawa Museum. An entry dated November 25, 1896 lists that day as Thanksgiving Day, an indication that it was at the same time as the American Thanksgiving during this time period. However an entry from October 15, 1903 is listed as Thanksgiving Day, and in 1913 it is mentioned on October 20.

You can read the diaries on the Oshawa Museum’s website.


Sources:

https://www.canadashistory.ca/explore/arts-culture-society/the-history-of-thanksgiving-in-canada

https://web.archive.org/web/20130628210214/http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/jfa-ha/graces-eng.cfm

World Postcard Day

By Lisa Terech, Community Engagement

Hello to all deltiologists – that’s postcard collectors! October 1 is World Postcard Day, a date chosen because, according to worldpostcardday.com, postcards were officially issued and recognized by a postal operator on October 1, 1869.

‘Post Cards’ had been used to communicate before 1869, however, as the website states, an Austrian professor of Economics, Dr. Emanuel Herrmann,  “wrote an article in the Neue Freie Presse pointing out that the time and effort involved in writing a letter was out of proportion to the size of the message sent. He suggested that a more practical and cheaper method should be implemented for shorter, more efficient communications.”

Dr. Herrmann must have put forth a convincing argument, as this was put into practice on October 1, 1869, resulting in the Correspondenz-Karte. It was light-brown, 8.5 x 12cm in size, and it featured space for the address on the front (obverse) and room for a short message on the back (reverse). After the Austrian government issued the first postal card, other countries soon followed – Canada in 1871 and the United States in 1873.

A013.4.464 – postcard to Thomas Henry from his brother, William. You can see the front is exclusively for the addressee while the back is the correspondence.

A few decades later, postcards began featuring images on one side, and by the 1890s, as photography’s popularity was continuing to grow, postcards began featuring photographs. At the turn of the 20th century, 2,700 cards were mailed by Canadians, but by 1913 this figure had jumped to 60 million.  Considering the population of Canada was a mere 7.2 million in 1911, this figure is all the more incredible.

Postcards were an economical way of staying in touch with friends and relatives before the era of the telephone.

The postcard collection at the Oshawa Museum is rather sizable and varied in terms of scope and subjects. We have several postcards commemorating events, such as New Years, Easter, Hallowe’en and Christmas. We have a number that feature rather Victorian/Edwardian depictions. We have a ‘Tall Tale’ postcard and a few that simply make me laugh.

Some are in the collection because of the pictures on the obverse, while others are treasured because of what it being communicated on the reverse.

We also have a few postcards made from leather! postcardhistory.net claims that postcards made from leather began around 1903 and that postcards dating before 1915 aren’t terribly uncommon.

The examples in our collection range in date from 1906 to 1908. One of the examples was destined for Saskatchewan, Northwest Territories – it is interesting to note that it is dated 1908, and Saskatchewan split from the Northwest Territories about 2 1/2 years prior.

Celebrate World Postcard Day by sending a message along to a friend! You can also tune into the Oshawa Museum’s Facebook Page for our Sunday FUNday LIVE on October 3 for a look at Postcards!

The Month That Was – October 1935

Canadian Statesman, 3 Oct 1935, p. 7
Social & Personal

The Statesman join sin tendering congratulations to Mr. JD Storie of Oshawa on the occasion of his 81st birthday on Sept 28. Mr Storie, who is an old Durham boy, was the largest donor toward the erection of the Nurses’ Home at Bowmanville Hospital.

A former Bowmanville boy, Fireman George Salter of Oshawa, has just completed 37 years active service with the Oshawa Fire Brigade. He has served under three fire chiefs, and has fought some of the most stubborn fires that have blazed in Oshawa during the present century. At the present time he is station man on the Oshawa Brigade.

Canadian Statesman, 24 Oct 1935, p. 2

Canadian Statesman, 17 Oct 1935, p. 1
Unique address heard at Rotary on Friday last
Col. Frank Chappell discusses the use and misuse of the English language in interesting talk

Both unique and delightfully presented was the address on Friday by Col. Frank Chappell, Public Relations Director of General Motors, Oshawa, at the Rotary Club. Col. Chappell made his address both educational and amusing. He was introduced by Rotarian Ross Strike and he spoke on the subject “Words and Phrases Common in the English Language.”

Most men, the speaker said, had a hobby of some sort, and the subject was something of an unconscious hobby of his own. Language he added, is said to be the clothing of our ideas and words the texture of our speech. The English language contains between 80 and 100 thousand words, and yet many of the greatest men only use a small proportion of this number. Shakespeare, who might be termed as the greatest literary genius of the ages, used no more than 5000 words, and yet with this number he was able to thrill the world with the beauty of his literary contributions. Such public men of today, as RB Bennett or Mackenzie King have vocabularies of probably 10,000 words.

The average working man, oddly enough, gets along with the use of about 200 words. There is nothing highbrow, Col. Chappell said, in using well rounded speech. There is not such so much beauty in human expression as there was in other days, and yet colour and style belonged to all of us for our own use.

Slang was used a great deal to put emphasis on expression, but too much use of slang tended to spoil the language…

The speaker believed there should be a little more originality in speech. He deplored the use of words spelled backwards as names, and two instances of this recited. Canada, spelled backwards, Adanac, was used a great deal as a trade name, but it lacked the beauty and the meaning that is in the word Canada. Recently he came across an apartment house called Rolyat and upon investigation found that it was the owners name, Taylor, spelled backwards.

Practically all names have an origin in a trade or profession or characteristics. Strong men, denotes a characteristic, whereas such names as Bowman, denote art…

Oshawa Daily Times, 28 Oct 1935

Canadian Statesman, 24 Oct 1935, p. 7
In the Dim and Distant Past
Twenty-Five Years Ago, from the Bowmanville News, October 21, 1010

Rev. and Mrs. J Garbutt, Mrs FA Haddy, Mrs BM Warnica, Mrs LA Tole, Miss Annie Cryderman are delegates to the Provicincial Sunday School convention in Oshawa

Mr. Percy Piper of this town won 2nd prize for the best costume at the grand masquerade at Oshawa Roller Rink on Thursday.

Oshawa Daily Times, 28 Oct 1935
Aged Resident Died at Harmony Sunday Morning
Mrs. JL McGill was born here 83 years ago

Mrs. John L. McGill, a lifetime resident of Oshawa and district, died at the home of her daughter, Mrs. H Willson, Harmony, yesterday morning. Mrs. McGill had been in ill health for the past three months, but had only been confined to bed for the past few weeks.

Mrs. McGill, whose maiden name was Jennie Lorenda Henry, was born in the old Henry homestead, Oshawa-on-the-Lake, 83 years ago. After her marriage to Mr. McGill they moved to the McGill homestead in East Whitby, where they lived for a number of years. For more than 25 years, Mrs. McGill had been living at 102 Agnes St.

Mrs. McGill was a member of Centre Street United Church, formerly the Christian Church. It was largely through the efforts of her father, Elder Thomas Henry, that the Christian Church was established in Oshawa. She was a member of the Women’s Association of that church, and had been an active member and convener of a group until the past year prevented her from taking a very active part.

Predeceased by her husband 12 years ago and by her only son, Orvill McGill of St. Catharines, 11 years ago, two daughters, Mrs. H Willson Ann Mrs. CI DeGuerre, remain. There are ten grandchildren and nine great grandchildren. Mrs. McGill was the last member of her family, the last of 16 children.

The funeral will be held from the home of her daughter, Mrs. H Willson, Harmony at 2:30 o’clock on Tuesday afternoon. Rev. WP Fletcher, former pastor of Centre Street Church, will officiate assisted by Rev. GCR McQuade. Interment will be made in the Union Cemetery.

Oshawa Daily Times, 28 Oct 1935

Oshawa Daily Times, 28 Oct 1935
Relief Lists Continue to  Grow Smaller in Oshawa
Number on Relief Reached the Lowest Point Here Today Since 1930 – Board Hopes to Complete Year Without and Overdraft

The reduction in the number of families on relief in the city of Oshawa continues at a very gratifying rate, and the figures issued this morning by Relief Administrator J. C. McGill, indicate that the situation is more satisfactory than it has been at any time since relief on a large scale became necessary in this city. This morning, the number of families on relief had dropped to 662, this being the lowest figure recorded at this date since the year 1930. Since the meeting of the Public Welfare Board on October 9, the number of families on relief has decreased by 79, the figure on that date being 741 families. This reduction is entirely due to families becoming self-supporting by reason of the wage earner going back to work.

A year ago, on the same date there were 813 families on relief, and the number was increasing rapidly, in contrast to the present condition of almost daily reductions. In 1933, there were almost 1,202 families on relief on October 28, and the number was also increasing steadily in that year.

These figures show the very satisfactory position of the relief situation today, as compared with previous years, and Mr. McGill is very hopeful that the present decreases will continue, and will effect a very considerable reduction in relief costs for the balance of this year and the early months of next year. It is just possible that, by reason of the fewer families on relief, the welfare board will be able to finish the year without an overdraft on the budget set aside for it for the year of 1935, which would be a considerable reduction from the total costs in 1934.

Canadian Statesman, 31 Oct 1935, p. 3

Oshawa Daily Times, 28 Oct 1935, p. 6
Harbor Deserted

Oshawa Harbor at the present time presents rather a sererted appearabce. All the small pleasure craft, that during the summer season swung at their moorings, have been removed to winter quarters. The only craft remaining is the crusier “Harry H.” which is moored at the north side of the turning basin.

Canadian Statesman, 31 Oct 1935, p. 7
Holy Trinity AYPA of Oshawa were guests on Monday night of St. John’s AYPA at a Hollowe’en masquerade in the Parish Hall. Eric Colwell won the prize for the most original costume, Russel Hatherly of Oshawa for the comic, and an Oshawa girl for the prettiest costime. The hall was gaily decorated for the event, and about 75 young people attended.

Whitby Gazette and Chronicle, 31 Oct 1935, p. 9

Whitby Gazette and Chronicle, 31 Oct 1935, p. 7
Raglan

Plans are being made for a Hallowe’en masquerade in the hall on Thursday evening. The school children are preparing entertainment and are inviting the ladies to help provide. Everyone is cordially invited.

An Audio Project Update

By Lisa Terech, Community Engagement

For a little over a year, the OM has been offering an at-home volunteer project. Our Audio Transcription Project is making our collection more accessible and user friendly. We are digitizing cassette recordings in the collection – volunteers can access the digital files online, and they have dedicated HOURS to transcribing, typing out word for word, what is said in the recordings.

As mentioned, this makes the collection accessible. If someone is deaf or has hearing loss, the written transcription will now be readily available. The transcriptions will also be easier to search thanks to the typed transcription and search functions with PDFs.

The transcriptions get completed and returned to the OM, and I’ve been reading through the files as they get submitted. Like with many items in the archival collection, it’s very easy to ‘go down the rabbit hole’ with these transcriptions as many recollections shared within are simply fascinating.

There are a few recordings with Robinson descendants who shared their memories from when Robinson House was their family home:

INTERVIEWER: We are now in the large north room on the main floor. Percy is going to tell us how he remembers this room.

PERCY: I remember, readily, that when this room was a barber shop, the poles were out in the front, we used to sit in the front steps, and I suppose catering to the traffic down to the beach, people coming and going, especially on the weekend. But, this room was used for some time, for some years, as a barber shop.

INTERVIEWER: And the entrance to the barber shop would be the door on the north side, which we are not using today.

PERCY: Double doors

Alan Barnes was involved with the restoration of Robinson House in the 1960s before it opened as the Robinson House Museum in 1969. Through the years, the OM is often asked if we are haunted, and this is a decades old question, considering what Mr. Barnes had to say about it.

The house you know, had the reputation of being haunted, and I don’t think it was really haunted. I think it was some of the comings and goings of our less fortunate friends that went in with bottles and came out, rather staggeringly, that the kids saw the shadowy movements and assumed that it had to be spooks, so to keep the kids out, the building had been boarded up.

Stephen Saywell, in 1982, gave a talk on Oshawa’s educational history, but he also made the following, and rather prophetic, observation.

And Tom Bouckley has done a yeoman service to this city in the two books which he has written entitled Pictorial Oshawa and which I’m sure many of you have. And if you haven’t you want to have because someday, they’re going to be out of print and they’ll become collectors’ items.

Bouckley ended up publishing three volumes of Pictorial Oshawa and, sure enough, they have indeed become collectors’ items. (Shameless plug – Volume I was republished in 2010, a partnership between the OM, OPL, and RMG. You can buy your copy from the OM’s online website.)

Finally, I was delighted to find a little of my own family history in the audio cassette recordings. My grandfather’s second wife, my Grandma Doreen, was born and raised in Oshawa (she and my grandpa met while working at Duplate). Her father, George Trainer, was a barber in Oshawa, and my family donated some of his barber tools to the museum in 2010.

George Trainer

We have a recorded interview with “Ivan Richards, age 62, who lives at 20 Oshawa Boulevard South. They draw upon his own memories and those of his father, both of whom have lived in Oshawa all their lives.” In his reminiscences, Richards shared

You asked me about Cedar Dale. I know a lot about Cedar Dale having talked to people that have lived there for a great number of years, and what I said –when I should have been delivering mail, I was in the barber shop of George Trainer, and I think a story here comes to -to mind. We run into George Trainer to get your hair cut and a checkers game was on, they were playing checkers, Frank Sherwood and Trainer himself, and Ed Powers, and anyone that might want to come along and play a game of checkers this is where they played it. When you went in to get your haircut you waited until the game of checkers were over to get your hair cut. Now this was an honest fact, I seen many people sit down and wait until they got done their game of checkers and then George’d trim their hair.

I knew my step-great-grandfather was a barber – we had the clippers – but I was young when my grandmother passed away, so I didn’t think to ask her stories of her family of what growing up in Oshawa was like for her. To hear this story, and others that I’ve learned through this audio project, helps to illustrate the time and provide a glimpse of this community, how it’s grown, and what’s stayed the same.

If you would like more information about the Audio Transcription Project and how to get involved, please send me an email! High School Students – this is a GREAT way to earn community service hours! Email: membership@oshawamuseum.org

Or, you can visit the OM‘s website for more info.

Reflections from a Summer Student

By Grace A., Summer Student

I spent the majority of my summer at the Oshawa Museum researching the city’s early Jewish community. As Jennifer Weymark shared in her post, this project aligns with the greater plan to compile the stories that have not yet been told in our local histories. As she wrote, there has been a summer student (that’s me) sifting through census records, newspaper articles and other primary source documents, trying to piece it all together. In the beginning, I delved into the 1921 Census of Canada, looking for families in Oshawa who identified as Hebrew. I recorded names, birthdates, countries of origin, dates of immigration, language, and occupation. Using this information, I went to the Oshawa City Directory from the same year to get a little more personal. I found out which houses they lived in and the businesses they may have owned. I have to admit, I felt a little invasive. Everything I looked through was public record, but I couldn’t help but wonder what they would think and whether they would have approved of me playing private investigator.

The idea of informed consent was developed in the medical and biomedical community during the 1950s. While the concept has evolved over time, it’s rooted in the belief that there should be a process of communication between the physician and patient. To simplify it, the patient has to be fully aware of what they’re getting into before they receive treatment. Conversations about research ethics over the last few decades have been influenced by the basic notion of informed consent. For example, Karen L. Potts and Leslie Brown talk about informed consent in their essay titled “Becoming an Anti-Oppressive Researcher.” In their words, informed consent “highlights our commitment to the community, our relationships to it, the data, and the process.” These processes become complicated when you’re researching past communities. Most of the time, there is no opportunity to have an open dialogue between the researcher and subject in historical studies.

Ontario Jewish Archives, 1976-6-8

This summer, I learned that in the absence of this relationship there are still ways that museums can commit themselves to anti-oppressive research. On this project, we had many conversations about the archive. This is a particularly important consideration for a research project about the early Jewish community in Oshawa. During the time periods we studied, Jewish people in Canada faced anti-Semitism and experienced a great deal of adversity as a result of colonial violence. This considered, we have to be aware of how these structures are embedded in archived material. The Ontario Jewish Archives was immensely helpful both as a source of reliable information and a partner on this project. The photograph above is from their collection, and shows a group of Oshawa children and a Rabbi at a Cheder class from 1925. “Cheder Class” was one of many photographs from the OJA’s collection which helped to visualize the history of the early Jewish community.


Sources

Research As Resistance, Second Edition: Revisiting Critical, Indigenous, and Anti-Oppressive Approaches, edited by Leslie Brown, and Susan Strega, Canadian Scholars, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.proxy.queensu.ca/lib/queen-ebooks/detail.action?docID=6282047.