The Month That Was – May 1872

Content warning – one article discusses a murder, suicide attempts, and domestic violence.

Canadian Statesman, 2 May 1872, page 2
Mount Vesuvius has again been emitting volumes of fire and lava, and quite a number of lives have been destroyed thereby. Residents in the vicinity who escaped destruction have fled from the Mount, and suffering is widespread.

Whitby Chronicle, 2 May 2, 1872, page 2
Pickering Spring Fair
The Spring Fair of the Agricultural Society of the township of Pickering was held at Brougham on Wednesday last. – The attendance was large, as usual.  The entries were not so numerous as we have seen at former fairs, numbering only 45 altogether.  The quality of the animals, as might be expected, was, however, excellent.  The following is the Prize List:

Draught Stallion – Wm. West, 1st; West & Storey, 2nd; J. Whiteside, 3rd.
Canadian Draught Stallion – Robert Annan, [1st]; B. Stopover, 2nd; J.V. Spears, 3rd.
2-yr old colt, draught – Jas, I. Davidson.
2-yr old colt, Canadian draught – D.S. McFarlane, 1st; R. Fisher, 2nd.
Bull, calved since Jan. ‘71 – John Miller, 1st; John Wilson, 2nd; Thomas Bennet, 3rd.
Bull, calved since Jan. ‘70 – Birrell & Johnston, 1st; J. Thompson, 2nd; Isaac Middleton, 3rd.
Aged bull – John Miller, 1st and 3rd; John Rusnell, 2nd.
Blood Stallion – Wm. Linton, 1st.
Saddle or Carriage Stallion – S. Beattie, 1st; E. Major, 2nd; J. Lehman, 3rd.
General Purpose Stallion – Jas. Paul, 1st; R.S. Wilson, 2nd; J. Hunter [3rd].
2 bushels of Clover Seed – James Whitson, 1st; R. Fuller, 2nd.
2 bushels of Timothy Seed – James Whitson, 1st; D/S/ McFarlane, 2nd. 

Whitby Chronicle, 9 May 1872, page 2
Under Sentence of Death
William Caulfield, cooper, of Oshawa, a man of about 55 years of age, now lies under sentence of death in Whitby gaol, for the murder of his wife. A report of the trail will be found in other columns. This is the first murder trial that has taken place in the County of Ontario since the county was set off, now ninteen (sic) years ago. Caulfield is a native of Ireland; he is the father of a grown up family of four children – two young women, daughters, and two sons. It appears from all the facts that the condemned man and his unfortunate wife led a most unhappy life. Both were given to drink, and violent quarrels frequently took place.  More than once before it is states, the woman attempted to make away with her own life, and the doubt remains, in the face of Caulfield’s protestations of innocence, whether she was not driven to do so in one of her desperate fits of bad temper. A petition is going for the rounds, we understand for signature, praying that the extreme penalty of the law may not be carried out, and there is reason to believe that the parties interesting themselves in the matter will be successful in securing a commutation of the sentence of death.

Newspaper ad for Bambridge Carriages
Ontario Reformer, 10 May 1872, p. 4

Ontario Reformer, 10 May 1872, page 2
Village Council
Council met on Monday evening last.  Present: the Reeve in the chair, and Mesars. Cowan, Luke, and Cameron.  Minutes of last meeting read and approved.

Moved by Mr. Luke, seconded by Mr. Cameron, – That the Court of Revision be held on the 16th inst. Carried.

The following accounts were read, and ordered to be paid: W. Glennie, services as Assessor, $1.10; drain digging, $20.25; Dulury, for shade trees, $11.50; J.O. Guy gravel, $10.60; indigents, $24.

Mr. McGregor inquired if it was the intention of the Council to enforce the “cow” by-law, and was answered in the affirmative. 

Mr. McGregor also asked if it was the intention of the Council to have shade trees planted on Centre Street, south.  He thought this spring would be a good time to do it, before the street was opened up, as it would save the expense of guards for them.  On being asked if he would plant the trees if furnished to him, he said he would, if the Council would send a man to help him.  Mr. Gurley was ordered to have Delury get another load of trees, and have Mr. McGregor supplied. 

Constable Gurley was authorized to procure a person to assist him in his duties, on Saturdays and Sundays. 

Mr. Cowan made a few remarks in reference to the Sewing Machine Factory.

Council adjourned, subject to call of Reeve. 

Newspaper ad for eyeglasses
Ontario Reformer, May 17, 1872, page 4

Ontario Reformer, 17 May 1872, page 2
Musical Re-union
The programme to be presented at the Re-union this evening, in connection with the Oshawa Lodge I.O. of G.T., is an exceedingly good one, and will be well carried out.  The public are cordially invited to attend.  It has been decided to charge the small admission fee of 15 cents for single tickets, and 25 cents for double tickets – the proceeds to be used in purchasing music books, etc., for use in the Temple.  Doors open at 7:30, to commence at 8 o’clock, precisely. 

The instrument to be used on the occasion, is a Taylor, Farley & Co’s organ, the property of Mr. Geo. Liddell, who has kindly lent it for the occasion, and is a first-class instrument. 

Ontario Reformer, 17 May 1872, page 2,
Serious Accident
On Sunday afternoon, May 12th, while the Rev. John McDouagh in company with his niece, Miss Armstrong, and Miss Frances McCormick, were driving from his Kirby appointment to Orono, a very serious accident occurred to them.  The horse became frightened, ran away and threw them all out of the buggy.  Miss Armstrong was but slightly injured; Miss McCormick received a compound fracture on the left leg, just below the ankle, and the right ankle was severely sprained.- The buggy turned completely over on Mr. McDonagh, and his back and one side were badly bruised, though fortunately no bones were broken.  Miss McCormick was removed to her father’s residence and Drs. Fielding and Renwick as once sent for, who carefully set the fractured limb, and at present the patient is doing well.  Mr. McDouagh and his niece were able to go on to their home in Newcastle the same evening. – Statesman

Whitby Chronicle, 30 May 1872, p. 2
Sentence of Death Commuted
The sentence of death passed on Wm. Caulfield for wife murder, has been commuted by His Excellency the Governor General, to imprisonment for life in the Provincial Penitentiary.

Newspaper ad for a circus
Ontario Reformer, May 17, 1872, page 3

Ontario Reformer, 10 May 1872, page 2
Public School Pupils
The duties of pupils attending the Public Schools of Ontario, have been defined by the Council of Public Instruction, as follows:

The Master, or Teacher of every School is by law a public officer, and, as such shall have power, and it shall be his duty to observe and enforce to following rules:

Pupils must come to school clean, and best in their persons and clothes.  They must avoid idleness, profanity, falsehood and deceit, quarreling and fighting, cruelty to dumb animals; be kind and courteous to each other, obedient to their instructors, diligent to their studies, and conform to the rules of their school.

Tardiness on the part of the pupils shall be considered a violation of the rules of the school, and shall subject the delinquentes to such penalty as the nature of the case may require, at the discretion of the master. 

No pupil shall be allowed to depart before the hour appointed for closing school, except on the account of sickness, or some pressing emergency, and then the master or teacher’s consent must first be obtained. 

A pupil absenting himself from school, except on account of sickness, or other urgent reasons satisfactory to the master or teacher, forfeits his standing in the class, and his right to attend the school for the remainder of the quarter. 

Any pupil not appearing at the regular hour of commencing any class of the school, which he may be attending without a written excuse from his parent or guardian, may be denied admittance to such school for the day, or half day, at the discretion of the teacher. 

Every pupil, once admitted to school, and duty registered, shall attend at the commencement of each term, and continue in punctual attendance until its close, or until he is regularly withdrawn by notice in writing to the teacher to that effect; and no pupil violating this rule shall be outitled to continue in such school, or be admitted to any other, until such violation is certified by the parent or guardian to have been necessary and unavoidable, which shall be done personally or in writing. 

Pupils in cities, towns and villages shall be required to attend any particular school which may be designated for them by the Inspector, with the consent of the trustees.  And the inspector alone, under the same authority, shall have the power to make transfers of pupils from one school to another. 

Any pupil absenting himself from examination, or any portion thereof, without permission of the master, shall not thereafter be admitted to any Public School, except by authority of the Inspector, in writing; and the names of such absentees shall be reported by the master immediately to the trustees; and this rule shall be read to the school just before the days of examination, at the close of each quarter. 

Pupils shall be responsible to the master for any misconduct on the school premises, or in going to or returning from school, except when accompanied by their parents or guardians, or some person appointed by them. 

No pupil shall be allowed to remain in the school unless he is furnished with the books and requirements required to be used by him in the school; but in case of a pupil’s being in danger of losing the advantages of the school, by reason of his inability to obtain the necessary books or requisites, through the poverty of his parent or guardian, the trustees have power to procure and supply such pupil with the books and requisites required. 

The foes for books and stationery, &c., as fixed by the trustees in cities and towns, whether monthly or quarterly, shall be payable in advance; and no upil shall have a right to enter or continue in the school until he shall have paid the appointed fee. 

Any property of the school that may be injured or destroyed by pupils, must be made good forthwith by the parents or guardians, under a penalty of the suspension of the delinquent pupil.

No pupil shall be admitted to, or continue in any of the Public Schools who has not been vaccinated, or who has been afflicted with, or has been exposed to, any contagious disease, until all danger from contagion from such pupil, or from the disease or exposure, shall have passed away, as certified in writing by a medical man.

No pupil shall be admitted to any Public School who has been expelled from any school, unless by the written authority of the Inspector. 

Every pupil entitled thereto shall, when he leaves or removed from a school, receive a certificate of good conduct and standing, in the form prescribed, of deserving of it. 

10 Years of the Oshawa Museum Blog

By Lisa Terech, Community Engagement

In 2013, I was able to work under a grant to digitise Henry House and various collections within. It was a wonderful opportunity to work with the collections we have here at the Oshawa Museum, and at the time, I was early in my Museum career, so I was excited to be offered new opportunities to grow my skills.

One of the first projects I was tasked with cataloguing and digitising was the quilt collection, a priority collection to focus on at first because of a planned exhibit later that year.

Our set-up for photographing large quilts, 2013

As I was working through the collection of over 70 quilts, I thought it would be interesting to share some of what I was learning about the quilts and the behind the scenes workings of the Museum. From this, the Oshawa Museum’s blog began!

Ten years later, and staff, students, and volunteers of the Oshawa Museum have authored over 600 posts for the blog, with topics ranging from industries, soldiers, the lives of women and children, street names, newspaper happenings, and everything in between. There have been over 228,000 views from over 140,000 visitors, just amazingly overwhelming numbers!

If you have ever stumbled across the Oshawa Museum blog and have enjoyed what you’ve found here, thank you! We appreciate the continued support and we hope you enjoy reading for many years to come!

  • Our very first blog post was Quilt Stories, Part I.
  • It is very likely that our top read blog post is Keeping Warm: The Ways The Victorians Did!. The top all time post is a hard stat to gather, but it has been the top post for years now, so this is very likely the best read post!
  • The blog site is also where we have our Resource Pages, where we have rounded up blog posts, videos, community links, and more related to our community history.

The Host Files: Scout-Guide Week and Scouting in Oshawa

By Adam A., Visitor Host

The week of February 22 is Scout-Guide Week, the celebration of the global Scouting and Guiding movements around the shared birthday of its founder, Lord Robert Baden-Powell, and his wife, Lady Olave Baden-Powell, the former World Chief Guide. These organizations promoting preparedness and community mindedness have long been active in Canada and had an especially notable presence in Oshawa.

Lord Robert Baden-Powell’s role as the founder of Scouting began as a mere coincidence. He was a career soldier of the British Empire and served in a number of colonial campaigns in Africa. During this time, he penned a guide to living off the land and wilderness survival titled Aid to Scouting, meant to instruct the Army’s non-commissioned officers in the skills needed for reconnaissance. At the same time, a grassroots movement had begun to reconnect the youth with nature and revive the rural character that had been lost through industrialization and urbanization. In lieu of more suitable literature, a number of predecessor organizations had adopted Lord Robert’s book, inadvertently turning a niche military manual into a best seller. Lord Robert took a more active role in the movement upon returning from the Second Boer War, organizing the first scout rally in 1907 and rewriting Aid to Scouting to be more directly applicable to youth wilderness instruction, publishing it in 1908 as Scouting for Boys. In 1910 he formally founded the Boy Scouts Association and, along with his sister Agnes, established the Girl Guides in response to the high amount of female interest in scouting.

Scouts Canada would only be established in June of 1914 as an overseas component of the British Boy Scouts Association, but, as in the UK, a number of predecessor organizations and informal scouting troops already existed by that time. This arrangement gave Canada a national council to organize scouting activities and procure uniforms and other equipment for the troops, but Scouts Canada would continue to be internationally represented by its British parent association until 1946.

Colour photograph of a blue scout shirt. It has belts, ropes, and a number of badges attached to it.
022.11.1 – scout shirt from the 1930s

Last year the Oshawa Museum received an especially interesting collection of artefacts from this period of Canadian scouting. A collection of Sea Scouts uniform clothes belonging to John Chappell, son of Colonel Frank Chappell, was donated in September. This collection notably contained the uniform John Chappell had worn in 1933, his 6th year with the 8th Oshawa Sea Scouts Troop, and the year in which he was one of eight Canadians to attend the 1933 Scouting Jamboree in Budapest, Hungary. This uniform proudly displayed 20 proficiency badges:

  • Pathfinder
  • Ambulance man
  • Cyclist
  • Signaller
  • Fireman
  • Rescuer
  • Interpreter
  • Naturalist
  • Starman
  • Citizen
  • Swimmer
  • Pioneer
  • Camper
  • Laundryman
  • Handyman
  • Camp Cook
  • Musician
  • Electrician
  • Auto Mechanic
  • Plumber
Colour photograph of a sleeve of a blue shirt. The sleeve has many badges sewn onto it.
Detail of 022.11.1, showing the sleeve and badges.

He also had badges designating him as a King’s Scout and a First Class Scout. As Scouts Canada was still internationally represented by the British Boy Scouts Association, his 1933 Jamboree patch is accompanied by a Union Jack patch.

Girl Guides of Canada was established in July 1917, though a number of Guide Companies organized under the British Association had been operating since 1910. The Oshawa Girl Guides began as one of these early groups, first organizing in 1911. For many decades they lacked a permanent meeting place. They met at St. George’s Anglican Church as well as the homes of prominent Oshawa women like Adelaide McLaughlin and Verna Conant.

Black and white photograph of a group of young men and boys posed around a tall wooden structure, beside a log building.
Camp Samac, c. 1940s; Oshawa Museum archival collection (A002.9.8)

In 1943 Sam McLaughlin donated 150 acres in north Oshawa to Scouts Canada, and three years later it opened as Camp Samac. Camp Samac remains one of Scouts Canada’s largest properties and hosts a number of major scouting events, such as the international Join In Jamboree which has been held there since 2015. In 1947 the McLaughlins would provide the Girl Guides with their Guide House in downtown Oshawa.

Painting of a two storey house, with words out front reading 'Oshawa Girl Guides'
Painting of Guide House, 1981, Oshawa Museum archival collection (A013.5.5).

Various troops from both organizations frequently visit the Oshawa Museum to learn about the area’s history and to do Victorian/pioneer crafts. The Oshawa Museum is also currently preparing a new exhibit on the history of Scouting and Guiding in Oshawa which is planned to open later this year.


The Month That Was – January 1862

All articles originally appeared in the Oshawa Vindicator

January 1, 1862
Page 2
Death of Prince Albert

By the arrival of the Persia, on Monday of last week, we have the painful news of the sudden death of the husband of our beloved Queen. The telegraph announced the solemn and [startling] fact so very coolly that, coming as it did without any previous warning, or word as to his sickness, it scarcely obtained credit from the public. The following is the dispatch referred to: —

“His Royal Highness, Prince Albert, expired at noon of Sunday the 15th inst., of gastric fever. His illness was not considered dangerous until Friday.”…

The Queen and the Royal Family surrounded the death-bed of the Prince.

Page 3
Dog Lost

Lost in Oshawa on the 3rd instant, a White Bulldog with both ears cropped – the right one a little shorter than the left. He has a grey spot on his back and one on his hind parts, and a long tail. Any person returning the same to the undersigned will be liberally rewarded for their trouble. F. Prevost, Tonner. Oshawa, Dec 24th, 1861.

Black and White newspaper ad for John Warren's store
January 1, 1862, page 3

January 8, 1862
Page 2
Militia Appointments

The Hon. John A. Macdonald has been charged by His Excellency with the supervision of matters connected with the Militia of the Province, under the deisgnatin of Minister of Militia affairs.

His excellency has likewise been pleased to appoint Lt.-Colonel John Richard Nash, late of Her Majesty;’s 15th Regiment, to be Deputy Adjutant General of Militia for Upper Canada.

Oshawa Municipal Election

On Monday morning last, at 10 o’clock, the electors assembled in the courthouse for the purpose of nominating candidates for the council for 1862. The returning officer, Mr. Wm. E Mark, having taken his position, called for nominations, and in the course of 15 or 20 minutes, no less than 25 gentlemen were proposed by their friends. After the nominations were closed, the returning officer called for a show of hands, for each of the gentleman nominated; with the following results:

SB Fairbanks, 53. Thos. Eck and DF Burk, each 51. TN Gibbs, 49. D. Spaulding, 46. E. Dunn, 42. GH Grierson, 41. WW Brown, 37. J Hislop and G Wallace, 26. E Carswell, 24. John Cade, 2. Jas. Chase and Robert Graham, 20. DH Merritt, 18. A Hackett and J Carmichael, 16. RT Manuel, 15. W Dickie, 14. A Thompson, 13. Dr. McGill, 12. J. Gilchrist, 10. &c. &c.

According to the show of hands, Messrs., Fairbanks, Eck, Burk, Gibbs and Spaulding were, for the first time being, declared duly elected.

The various gentleman put in nomination, were then called upon for speeches…

The members of the Oshawa Council for 1864 are, therefore:

SB Fairbanks, Thomas Eck, DF Burk, WW Brown, Edward Dunne.

It is understood, as a matter of course, that Mr. Fairbanks will remain in the Reeve’s chair another year.

East Whitby Election

Mr. Fowke being about to remove to Oshawa, did not present himself for reelection in the Township. The other four members accepted nominations, and two new men were brought out, Mr. James O Guy, and Robert Smith – the latter, a brother of Mr. John Smith, who has been in the council ever since the division of the Township. Mr. Guy appears to be the favorite candidate, and led the poll from the commencement, closely followed by Messrs., Rob’t Smith, John Smith, and Wm Bartlett, while a close contest was, for some time, kept up between the respective friends of Messrs. Ratcliff and Doolittle. Mr. Ratcliff, however, always kept the lead, being 30 ahead at the close of the first day. At the close of the poll on Tuesday, the following gentleman were declared duly elected: —

James O. Guy, Robert Smith, Wm. Bartless, John Smith, John Ratcliff.

Page 3
$50 Reward

Whereas on the morning of the 17th day of August, 1861, there was laid at the door of William Bartless, on Lot No. 15 in the 1st concession of East Whitby, a female infant; and on the 27th of the same month, at the doors of Abram Skinner on Lot No. 3 in the 4th concession of East Whitby, a male infant; — A reward of $50 (fifty dollars) will be paid by the Corporation of East Whitby to any person who will prosecute to conviction the principal, or agent, in either of the above cases of child desertion.

Given under my hand at East Whitby aforesaid, on the 30th day of December, 1861. John Ratcliff, Town Reeve.

Black and white clippings from the newspaper
January 8, 1862, page 3

January 22, 1862
Page 2
Sleighing and Business

Until about a week ago, everybody was talking of the lack of snow, and the consequent dullness of the season, but now we have plenty of snow, splendid sleighing, and business is as brisk as the day is long. Our streets are, at times, almost blockaded with teams standing in front of stores, and passing and repassing – reminding a person of similar scenes in metropolitan streets. Enormous loads of cordwood, wheat, flour and other commodities pass along Simcoe Street every few minutes. As we write, four or five teams have passed along, each drawing the enormous load of two cords of wood on a single sleigh, for which the owners get $5.50 cash down, and hurry home to bring in another load in the afternoon before the price falls, which it mist soon do at the rate wood is coming in…

Page 3

Free Schools – We learn that the ratepayers in the School Section in Saxon’s Settlement, Darlington, have this year adopted the free school principle for the first time, without any opposition. –In the section in East Whitby, at Maxwell’s Corners, we learn that the Free School principle has been adopted this year, for the second time, by a majority of two to one, though carrid by a majority of only two or three, last year.

Stray Cattle

Three stray cattle came into the premises about the 1st of December, which may be described as follows: – One white Steer, with a few red spots; one red muley; and one red heifer with some white hairs. All, apparently, coming two years old in the spring. The owners are requested to prove property, pay damages and take them away. Thos. & Phin. Henry, Port Oshawa, January 16, 1862.

Black and White newspaper ad for David F. Burk's store
January 22, 1862, page 3

January 29 1862
Page 2
Selling Liquor Without License

On Saturday last the keepers of the British American and the Wellington houses, Messrs. RT Manuel and N Dyer, were again summoned before the Reeve on the charge of selling Intoxicating Liquors without license – the former for the third time, and the latter for the second. The charge being satisfactorily proven, the highest fine the law permits – twenty dollars – was imposed upon each. Mr. Manuel again gave notice of his intention to appeal to the Assizes, a la Spaulding. This makes the second fine of twenty dollars which he has appealed; – with what object, except to put off the date of payment, it is difficult to perceive, for it is not very likely that the fines have been illegally imposed.

Black and white newspaper ad for Dentist James Stephens
January 29, 1862, page 4

What a settler would have to do in their first year

By Adam A., Visitor Host

As the end of the year approaches, it is common to reflect on what one has accomplished. For a new settler in early Upper Canada, that would necessarily be quite a lot. Land Granting in Upper Canada prior to the War of 1812 was a regulated and centrally administered affair with standard plans for townships, screening of settlers, and preferred orders of development. These measures laid out a number of formal and informal hurdles for a prospective settler to overcome. These measures were imposed in part because only the colonial government, through treaties such as the Gunshot Treaty of 1787-8, was permitted to acquire land from the First Nations who inhabited Upper Canada. Settlers were not permitted to take unceded lands on their own initiative. Any who did so were deemed to be squatters endangering relations with the First Nations who, prior to 1812, were still considered to be critical allies for the defence of British North America.

After arriving in Canada, a prospective pioneer would need to be screened for loyalty by the local district magistrates. The British had recently lost what is now the United States of America and were keen to be sure that the new colony of Upper Canada would not suffer the same fate. If successful, the new settler would give an Oath of Loyalty to the Crown and receive a certificate of loyalty. Then they would need to attend a meeting of the Land Committee in York (now Toronto) to present their claim, agree to the government’s terms, and receive the Location Ticket that outlined the location and size of their land grant. Having obtained that it would be the duty of the settler to make for their lot with all due haste and set about improving it to satisfy the government that they were genuine settlers. At this time, land in Canada was free; the only cost associated with a 200 acre grant was 5 pounds and 11 shillings worth of fees to acquire the necessary paperwork and cover the costs of the survey (and these fees were waived for Loyalist refugees), and the government was keenly aware that such low costs might attract speculators.

Colour illustration showing a group of people working at cutting lumber by a water's edge. There is a small wood cabin, and two cows assisting with the work, and there are tall trees in the background.
From Thomas Conant’s Upper Canada Sketches, “Logging Scene, Roger Conant in Darlington, Co. Durham, Upper Canada, 1778;” illustration by ES Shrapnel

The government mandated that any pioneer could only keep their grant provided they cleared and fenced at least five acres and erected a house of at least 16 by 20 feet within a year of obtaining their grant. Given seven acres was the upper end of how much land could be cleared in a year, and no agricultural work could be undertaken until enough land was cleared, these were not unreasonable or excessively burdensome expectations. Still, the work involved was extremely labour intensive. Trees would need to be felled, and stumps would need to be pulled from the ground. This was a difficult and lengthy process, involving the clearing of about 2,500 trees per acre, but it came with immediate benefit. The fallen trees could be used to build the pioneer’s home and fence, another portion would typically be burned to clear the remaining undergrowth and fertilize the soils with ash, and the remainder could be used for income. Early on it was common for excess wood to be burned and refined into potash which could be sold downstream to Montreal. Common practice was to cut down trees during the day and then devote long hours in the night to tending to the fires. As an area developed, a pioneer could instead sell their unneeded tree trunks to a local lumber mill. The profits from artisanal forestry could sustain the pioneer family while they developed their farm to the point where agricultural activity could sustain them. Circumstances permitting, an early pioneer might further supplement their income by engaging in the local fur trade, as Roger Conant did in our area.

Having taken up their land and proven their industriousness, the new pioneer was meant to return to York to receive their land patent, fully conferring the legal ownership of the land to them. However, many pioneers would skip this step due to their distance from York or preoccupation in their local area and only sought their patent when they intended to sell their land or needed to settle a boundary dispute. Regardless of whether they took this step, the early pioneer’s first year would have been a whirlwind of travel and work.


Conant, Thomas. Life in Canada. Toronto; William Briggs, 1903.

Moorman, David T. The ‘First Business of Government’: the Land Granting Administration of Upper Canada, 1998.

Lewis, Frank D., and M. C. Urquhart. “Growth and the Standard of Living in a Pioneer Economy: Upper Canada, 1826 to 1851.” The William and Mary Quarterly 56, no. 1 (1999): 151–81.

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