The Month That Was – February 1872

All articles originally appeared in the Ontario Reformer

February 2, 1872
Page 2
The Prosperity of Oshawa.
On every side we are seeing our town advancing. Really costly, sightly and substantial buildings of brick are being erected. The new brick hotel of Mr. Hobbs will compare favourably with almost any hotel in the Province, as to size, appearance and thoroughness. Mr. Quigley is preparing to erect a large hotel, early in the spring, on the Fuller lot, which is to be surmounted by an ornamental French roof. Let us hope that as good entertainment for travellers may be found within their walls as their exterior would seem to indicate.

In stores we have the [tasty] and commodious ones lately erected by Messrs. Cowan and Fowke. Mr. John Wilson is preparing to erect a number of stores on the ground of the late fire on King Street, which, as viewed from the drawings thereof, promises to be excelled by a few such structures in our cities. Mr. James B. Keddie, also, proposes to continue the block to the east by a structure similar in style for his own use.

Passing down Simcoe Street, we observe the compact and well-built new brick residences of Messrs. Dickie, and Thornton – both of which have ornamental roofs covered with slate. The palatial residence of TN Gibbs, Esq., is said to rivals that of the Lieutenant Governor at Toronto; and is one of which our town may be justly proud. Mr. Chas. A Mallory is already preparing to erect, early in the spring, the first-class brick dwelling upon a portion of the McGregor property. This property is thought some of the best sites for residences now available. We hope to see many residences erected during the summer on this property, as we understand the present owner, (Thomas Conant,) is about to put the whole of it on the market. This will afford sites for buildings according to the means of purchasers, as to front or back lots relatively.

Centre Street will then be opened out nearly all the way to South Oshawa, and will make one of our prettiest streets, especially for driving.

Many other residences have been erected and are in process of erection north and west of the cabinet factory.

One is almost constrained to say, that in order to keep pace with the improvements in the various parts of our town we should frequently pass through its various wards as new streets are being opened up, and new houses are being erected; we almost lose our reckoning after a few months absence. It is estimated that at least one hundred houses were erected in Oshawa last season. This is probably within the mark. Let us hope for a similar result in 1872.

Prosperity to our various manufactories, and a healthful, steady growth to Oshawa.

There is one thing we might observe, this: that as a rule houses erected are paid for by the proprietors, without incurring and incubus of debt. This fact argues volumes for a steady growth, without any such sudden inflation and corresponding depression as we have seen exemplified in some of our neighbouring towns.

One more word as we close. We have many public spirited men of means in our midst who are intimately concerned with the welfare of Oshawa, and whom, we feel sure, gladly assist new industries, which would add to the growth and wealth of the place.

Let manufacturers come along, and let us make Oshawa doubly noted throughout our Dominion for the excellence of its manufactured articles. In manufacturers alone we look for our continued prosperity.

Feb 2, 1872, p3

February 9, 1872
Page 2
The assembly in Mr. Cowan’s new store on Wednesday evening was a decided success. About seventy couples, from Toronto, Whitby, Bowmanville, Oshawa, and other places, were present, Dancing commenced at about nine o’clock and continued till between three and four in the morning.  The arrangements were complete, and all enjoyed themselves thoro’ly. The music of Davis’ quadrillo band, from  Toronto, was pronounced the best ever heard in the place. The supper was first-class; furnished by Mr. Cullen of Whitby.

The Town Hall Question – A public meeting to consider the above question will be held on Tuesday evening next, 13th inst., and not Monday, as previously announced. A full attendance of ratepayers is requested.

Feb 9, 1872, p3

February 16, 1872
Page 2
Fire – about 3:00 o’clock, on Sunday morning last, the Boot and Shoe store of H. Wilkinson was discovered to be on fire. The alarm was given, and the fire brigade soon on the spot; but, owing to the engine being frozen, it could render but little assistance. The fire quickly spread to adjoining buildings, and was only arrested in its course by the exertions of the Hook and Ladder Company, who worked well. After a little exertion on the part of the fireman, the engine was got to work, and soon all danger of the fire spreading to the Commercial Hotel, which was thought it would at one time, was past . The losses by the fire are Messrs. Wilkinson, Brennan, and Hobbs, on stock and furniture, partly covered by insurance; And Mrs. Woon and Mr. Cherry, owners of buildings.

Mr. Thomas Conant believes in encouraging manufacturers to come amongst us. He has given an acre of land to the hat manufacturing company, and yesterday instructed Mr. English to draw up a deed for the same. We believe the above company intend building a large factory, where they will give employment to 200 hands, men and women. We like to see these things going on, it is healthy for the town. Do it some more somebody else.

Page 3
For Sale
On Colborne St East, two lots and orchard, with one and one-half story frame building. Also two lots and two houses with orchard, on Brock St East, the whole contained in one block. Terms- $500 cash. Balance in yearly installments. Present rental, $250
William Deans
Oshawa, Feb 9, 1872

Feb 16, 1872, p4

February 23, 1872
Page 2
Opening of the new Baptist Church
The church was opened for divine service on Sunday last. Three sermons were preached; In the morning by the Rev. Dr. Fyfe, afternoon by the Rev. W. Stewart, and in the evening by the Rev. Dr. Davidson. At each of those services the church was filled to its utmost capacity.

On Monday evening a team meeting was held in the church, which was again crowded. After tea, TN Gibbs , Esquire, was called to the chair; And after a few introductory remarks, called on the Rev. Mr. Patterson, pastor of the church, to read the report of the building committee. …

Short speeches were then made by the chairman, the Rev. Messrs. Myers, Scott, Stewart and Davidson, each of the speakers congratulating the pastor and members of the church on the beautiful building which they had erected; and hoped that the balance yet required to pay off the debt on the church would be subscribed before the meeting closed. …

The church is a very handsome [edifice]- inside and out, built of white brick, and is of the Romanesque style of architecture, 36 x 30. The tower on the east corner of the building is not yet finished; but when completed will add greatly to the appearance of the building. The entrance is on King Street, by to doors, one on each corner; and from the one on the east corner access to the gallery is obtained, which runs across the front of the church. The pulpit is American style- a platform with a small movable desk, and is fitted up very neatly. Mr. Langley, was the architect; May brothers, masons; Gay, & J. & R.B. Dickie, carpenters ; and J. Brewer, painter and glazier.

Feb 23, 1872, p3

Historical Context, Modern Narratives, and Louis Riel

By Lisa Terech, Community Engagement

One of our popular Blog Series is ‘The Month That Was,’ which looks at a month of newspapers from the past, highlighting interesting stories, images, advertisements, and anything else eye catching. Often, the stories are quaint, humourful, or sometimes, they can give an insight into the happenings and/or politics at the time.  Newspapers leading up to elections are always interesting, especially those from the mid 1800s as the newspapers had very evident political biases. 

Sometimes, a simple annotation to the historical article can enhance a modern reader’s understanding of the event. For example, the August 9, 1872 edition of the Ontario Reformer reported:

Grace Marks received her pardon on condition that she would leave this country never to return.  She left Kingston on Tuesday, for the United States.

With this, an annotation was added, explaining that Grace was the subject of the popular Margaret Atwood book, later turned miniseries, Alias Grace.

When the trivia is short and simple, it makes annotating easy without taking away from the purpose of the article, highlighting stories from decades past.

However, while reading the newspapers in October 1873, news stories gave pause and left questions as to whether to present the articles as written, to annotate, or to exclude the stories because the additional context needed was greater than the blog post allowed. We opted for the latter, allowing another post, this one, to give the needed context.

Many articles in the October 24,1873 edition of the Ontario Reformer were discussing the results of a by-election in Manitoba which saw Louis Riel elected as a Member of Parliament.

The editors of the Reformer published their own editorials, slanted with their Liberal bias:

The Riel Difficulty
Riel, the murderer of Scott, is in Ottawa to-day claiming his seat as one of the People’s representatives, sheltering himself from just punishment behind a pardon granted by Sir John Macdonald… The question will then arise, however, how far that amnesty can be made to stretch.  While granting immunity to subjects in rebellion to Her Majesty’s laws, can it be also held to shelter the wilful, deliberate, unprovoked brutal murder of one of Her Majesty’s loyal subjects – not while in arms against the so-called Provisional Government, but while a helpless prisoner, utterly incapable of either resistance or disturbance. We believe very many of the member’s from Ontario maintain that the amnesty cannot be held to cover this foul crime, and we trust that bad as the character which the second Parliament has earned it, it will not be further sullied by association with a convicted murderer.

There was also the following inclusion:

An Opinion of Riel
We have been requested to publish the following resolution, passed last evening, and we commend it to the attention of the Hon. Mr. Gibbs:

Oshawa, Oct 23rd, 1873

An Emergency Meeting of the LO [Loyal Orange] Lodge, No 686, held at Oshawa, it was unanimously resolved that we regret to learn, that Louis Riel has been elected as a Representative to the House of Commons, of the Dominion of Canada, and , that we, as a Body, feel that his presence as a Representative in your Honorable House, would be a scandal and disgrace to our country, and utterly distasteful to the Members of our Loyal Orange Association, as well as to a large portion of the inhabitants of our Country, and we humbly trust that measures will be taken as will prevent him from taking a seat in the Parliament of the Dominion, and to bring him speedily to account for the murder of Thomas Scott in Manitoba, and that a copy of this resolution be sent to the Secretary of State and the Governor General of the Dominion of Canada.

The words being used by the various authors are strong: “murderer,” “utterly distasteful,” “foul crime,” and “disgrace to our country.” According to the Reformer, the local Orange Society was one of many around the country holding such meetings, wanting to see justice against Riel “if he attempts to enter the Province.”

Without providing additional historical and contemporary context to Riel, presenting these articles, as written, are not giving the full picture of the happenings of the Red River Rebellion or of Riel himself, whom we know today to be a complex historical figure, far more complex than the villain he is painted to be by many of his colonial contemporaries.

According to his Dictionary of Canadian Biography entry, Louis Riel is “one of the most controversial figures in Canadian history,” with the Métis  people regarding him a hero, the French Canadians sympathizing with this “victim of Ontario religious and racial bigotry,” and while those in the mid-1800s in the Canadian east painted him the villain, many today regard him as one of the Father of Confederation, a founder of the province of Manitoba.

Carte-de-Visite Portrait of Louis Riel
Notman Studio. Library and Archives Canada, e003895129
Carte-de-visite portrait of Louis Riel taken in Ottawa after his election as MP for Provencher, Manitoba, 1873.
Image from the Canadian Encyclopedia

Riel was born on October 22, 1844 in Saint-Boniface, Red River Settlement (modern Manitoba).  He was regarded as very well spoken, and he gained notoriety in the late 1860s, standing up for Métis culture, way of life, and rights.

A purchase of land by the government from the Hudson’s Bay Company and subsequent land surveys resulted in the organization the Métis National Committee. They denied the surveyor entrance to the lands, Upper Fort Garry was seized from the HBC, and the Red River Colony, under the leadership of Riel, was formed.  In December 1869, the “Declaration of the People of Rupert’s Land and the North-West,” was issued, rejecting “Canada’s authority to govern the Northwest and propos[ing] a negotiated settlement between Canada and the new provisional government” (Canadian Encyclopedia). Canadian delegates were sent, and negotiations resulted in the Manitoba Act, creating the fifth province to enter Confederation.  It was agreed that 1.4 million acres were to be reserved for Métis descendants, and it was also promised that Manitoba would officially be bilingual.

Meanwhile, a small group of Canadians appeared unpleased with the provisional Métis government.  They proceeded to Portage la Prairie, armed, and surprising the Métis who in turn imprisoned them.  A young Orangeman, Thomas Scott, was sentenced to death by a court martial convened by the Métis, a sentence that was not commuted by Riel; Scott was executed on March 4, 1870.  Protestants and Orange Lodge members in Ontario placed the blame for Scott’s death (or murder, as described later in Oshawa papers) upon Riel, who fled into exile after the Rebellion.

Clearly, the situation surrounding the death of Thomas Scott is layered and cannot be simplified into the black and white. It fits well into the modern narratives of land rights, reconciliation, colonization, and repatriation. The Métis peoples appeared to be defending the lands where they had lived for decades and upon which their Indigenous ancestors had lived for millennia. Riel, representing the Red River Colony, was defending his people and their culture.  To simply present the 1873 ‘English/Orange’ narrative of Riel as murderer without the additional context, is an unfair representation, furthering the mistakes of history and repeating the 19th century detrimental biases.  The editors of the Ontario Reformer, in their wording of ‘so-called Provisional Government,’ made it clear how they felt about Riel’s and the Métis’ actions in late 1869/early 1870.

After his election in 1873, Riel took the oath but never took his seat in the House of Commons, fearing assassination or arrest. In the 1880s, Riel led a second, unsuccessful, rebellion for which he was sentenced to death, which was carried out on November 16, 1885 in Regina.

It is difficult to fully present the Red River Rebellion and founding of Manitoba in a blog post.  In writing this post, content from the Metis Nation of Ontario, the Canadian Encyclopedia, and Dictionary of Canadian Biography was used, and it is highly encouraged that they are examined for further reading.

http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/riel_louis_1844_85_11E.html

https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/louis-riel

http://www.metisnation.org/culture-heritage/louis-riel/

The Month That Was – May 1873

All articles appeared in the Ontario Reformer

May 7 1873
Death & Inquest
The young man Farrel whom we reported in our last issue as having been injured on Saturday night, the 26th ult., died on Tuesday the 20th.  Owing to the peculiar circumstances under which deceased received his injuries it was thought advisable that an inquiry should be instituted.  Dr. Clarke was accordingly notified, and summoned a jury for 2 o’clock, on Wednesday last.  A number of witnesses were examined as to the manner in which the injuries were inflicted.  The testimony was given, went to show that the deceased was intoxicated, and had got upon a wagon going through the village in the direction of Harmony, between nine and ten that evening, and shortly after engaged with two others upon the wagon in a “scuffle,” which resulted in deceased tumbling overboard, the wagon passing over his head, face, and neck.

Drs. McGill and Coburn, who had seen him after the accident, made a post mortem examination of the parts, and testified as to the nature of the injuries… The opinion was that the death resulted from the effects of the injuries to the throat.  The jury, with Mr. Jno. Larke as foreman, returned as their verdict, “Accidental Death.”

May 7 1873 p1.JPG
May 7, 1873, page 1

May 7, 1873
Mr Carswell is advertised to give a lecture in the Music Hall, on Friday evening next.  The lecturer has just returned after a lengthened tour through the United States, and the public press wherever he has spoken speak of him in the highest terms.

May 7 1873 p3.JPG
May 7, 1873, page 3; for more on the fire, please see The Month That Was – December 1872

May 7, 1873
Our enterprising neighbour, Mr. AS Whiting, has caused within the last few days, a number of beautiful trees to be planted on each side of Simcoe Street, from the railway to the edge of the pond, and along the street leading to the harbour… Anything Mr. Whiting undertakes to do is always well done; this fact is plainly evidenced in his tree planting.  It has been observed that those put out under his instructions and supervision flourished and grown rapidly when others die.  Cedar Dale but a few years ago was not in existence, through the establishment and enterprising of the Cedar Dale Works, in now takes the position of a handsome and flourishing neighbour.

 

May 14 1873
Married
On the 7th inst. At Christ’s Church, Owosso, Michigan, by the Rev. Mr. Whitney, Robert Woon, esq., of Oshawa, to Miss Alice Ingersoul, Owosso, Michigan.

 

May 21, 1873
Queen’s Birthday
The Grand Musical Jubilee
We call the attention to the spirited entertainment got up by the Victoria Lodge of Orange Young Britons for the birthday of our beloved queen.  May we have the pleasure of commemorating many such days for her! The programme is an extra good one, and the selections of songs such as insures a crammed hall.  The array of outside talent procured – professionals all – reflects the highest credit upon the Young Britons, and we feel certain with such a spacious room as our New Music Hall, a rare treat is in store for the people of Oshawa on next Saturday night. Get your reserved seat tickets in time or you may have to take your place near the draft of the door

May 21 1873 p3.JPG
May 21, 1873, page 3

May 21, 1873
Oshawa Enterprise – Our indefatigable fellow-townsman, JW Fowke, has just shipped from Whitby Harbour a cargo by the Schooner Kate 4,500 bushels Wheat and 1,500 bushels Peas for Montreal.  He is collecting another cargo of wheat and one of wool for which he pays cash.  Go ahead Fowke and scatter the cash among the farmers.

May 21, 1873
Barnum’s Great Show – We have received the “Advance Courier” of Mr. PT Barnum, from which we learn, that he is again in possession of the largest, most elaborate and exhaustive combination of travelling exhibition ever exhibited on earth, embracing 20 shows consolidated in one.  This great Show will visit Canada in July, and no doubt will favor us with a visit.

May 21, 1873
All parties wishing to celebrate her Majesty’s Birthday, will do well to at Hodder’s and buy a new hat.

 

May 28, 1873
The Village constable, as will be seen by referring to our advertising columns, has been instructed to impound all cattle running at large upon our public streets after Monday next.

May 28 1873 p3.JPG
May 28, 1873, page 3

May 28, 1873
The band of the St. Patrick’s Benevolent Society wish to tender to the inhabitants of Oshawa, their more grateful acknowledgement for the very kind manner in which they were received on the morning of the Queen’s birthday.  Their liberal response was beyond their expectation, therefore they wish to inform the public that they will always find them ready and willing to oblige them on any occasion where their services would benefit, and especially on any benevolent or charitable purples, and also with it to be distinctly understood that they are not in opposition to any other party, their motto is and always will be “Harmony.”

May 28, 1873
Fire crackers have at different times of late been the cause of a great deal of mischief and loss of property.  In Whitby on the 24th, a house was  set on fire by their use but happily extinguished before much damage was done.  In some places the sidewalks in Oshawa were fired in the same way.  The authorities would be justified in forbidding their use when danger is likely to result

The Month That Was – April 1872

All articles originally appeared in the Ontario Reformer

April 5, 1872

Barnum wants him – the man with the big cheek, who wants the Joseph Hall Works moved from Oshawa – the man who wrote to Mr. Glen offering him a “free water privilege, a liberal bonus, and freedom from taxation if he would remove to Hall Words to that town” – the town where the man lived. Oh no; the Halls Works is a big part of Oshawa, and it would spoil the looks of the town to have it removed.  It is very nicely situated, and pays well.

 

Lacrosse

A meeting of the Oshawa Lacrosse club will be held at Black’s hotel on Tuesday evening next, at 8 o’clock. All persons interested in out door sports, are invited to attend.  The Lacrosse boys have never been beaten, and intend to “go in strong” this year.  It is of the utmost importance that every member of the club should attend, and they are requested to bring along as many friends as possible.

April 5 72 p1

Earthquake

California last week experienced a most terrible earthquake.  The volcanic district in which it occurred is about four hundred miles southeast from San Francisco.  Only a slight shock was felt at the time in Northern and Central California.  The town of Low Pine, however, appears to be immediate over the centre of disturbance.  The first shock resembled the roar of artillery, fired immediately under the town. Nearly the whole population were buried beneath the ruins of the houses, and the air was filled with the cries and shrieks of the maimed and wounded, who were unable to extricate themselves, and who were calling for help.  The first shock was followed in rapid succession by three others of equal severity.  Over three hundred distinct shocks were felt between half-past two o’clock in the morning and sunrise. The fact is, the earth was in almost constant tremble and vibration for over three hours…  Over thirty persons have been killed, and more than one hundred were wounded.  Smoke and lava have issued from several of the mountain peaks in the same region of the country.

 

April 12, 1872

Clean Up

Now is the time for every householder to see that his premises are thoroughly cleaned, and disinfectants properly applied.  Tuesday afternoon last being quite warm, the stench arising from several yards we had occasion to pass, was fairly sickening; and if no remedy is applied the result can easily be foreseen.  Filth and disease go together; and if we are to escape the latter, we must set scavengers at work, and be in nowise chary in our use of disinfectants.  The work should be done now before the weather becomes warmer; and we how that our Health Inspector will at once proceed on his rounds, and make sure that the law in regard to filthy premises is fulfilled to the very letter.

April 12 72 p3_1_stitch.jpg

For Sale

The property on Selina St., consisting of a story and a half Frame dwelling, with stone foundation.  There is a stable and driving shed attached, and a good garden with a number of choice Fruit Trees on it: also, a never-failing well of excellent water.  For terms and other particulars apply on the premises, to Walter Fogg.

 

April 19

On Monday evening last, the members of the Oshawa fire brigade, with a few of their friends, assembled at the Town Hall to present Mr. Scott and Mr. Crockhart – who were about leaving this town for Scotland – the following address, as a token of esteem for these two gentlemen:

To David J Scott lieut. and James Crockhart ,sec’y Oshawa “Dreadnaught Hook and Ladder Company”

Dear comrades, -As you are soon to leave us on a visit to your native Scotland, we, the members of the Oshawa fire brigade, do you know that we cannot allow you to depart without an expression of the regret we feel at a temporary sundering of the connection between us.

We address you conjointly because we believe it will be agreeable to you both, who have been marked for your strong friendly attachment to each other, and because the sentiments we shall utter are equally applicable to you both.

For over two years either as private or officers, you have been members of the brigade. As private you were obedient to those in authority, and prompt and untiring in the performance of every duty and as officers you proved yourself skillful, kind and considerate.

In your private life your characters have been irreproachable, and you have ever manifested a readiness to assist in every good work.

In the illness, which is the cause of his leaving us, we deeply sympathize with Mr. James Crockhart, and pray that the breezes of his native land may restore him to vigorous health.

We also pray that Divine Providence me overrule the winds and waves that you may have a safe and pleasant Atlantic voyage, a speedy reunion with relatives and friends, and in their lovely company realize all anticipated joy.

Hoping that you may be spared to return to Oshawa to rejoin our ranks and participate in the honors and dangers of our association whose aim and ambition it is to save, we bid you an affectionate farewell.

Signed on behalf of the brigade, PH Thornton, Chief Engineer, H Barkell, Secretary

 

April 26, 1872

A big clock – the large clock at the English Parliament House is the largest in the world. The four dials of this clock are 22 feet in diameter. Every half minute the point of the minute hand moves nearly 7 inches. The clock will go eight and a half days, but it only strikes for seven and a half, thus indicating any neglect and winding it up. The mere winding up of the striking mechanism takes two hours. The pendulum is 15 feet long; the wheels are of cast iron; the hour bell is 8 feet high, and 9 feet in diameter, weighing nearly 15 tons, and the hammer alone weighs more than 400 pounds. This clock strikes the quarter hours, and by its strokes the short hand reporters in the parliament chambers regulate their labors. At every stroke a new reporter takes the place of the old one, whilst the first retires to write out the notes that he has taken during the previous 15 minutes.

April 26 72 p3

Two weeks have passed since the assembling of parliament at Ottawa, and very little has been done yet, beyond the answering of several questions by members of the government. Ministerial measures foreshadowed in the address, few as they were, are not yet ready for presentation to the house; and as a consequence the daily sittings generally last about an hour or two. The cabinet sessions are doubtless more occupied with plotting how to retain office then and maturing measures for the public weal.

 

The Month That Was – March 1863

All articles originally appeared in The Oshawa Vindicator

March 11, 1863
The Oshawa Volunteers
Yesterday being a holiday, the Oshawa Volunteer Force was out for exercise.  This branch of the service consists of two companies- one of Rifles, under command of Capt. John Warren and the other of Infantry, under command of Major S.B. Fairbanks. It must be admitted that the members of these companies, though under drill but a short time, began to assume the all manner and bearing of real soldiers. They have recently provided themselves at their own expense, with neat capes, which add very much to the effect of their uniform.

 

Mare Astray
Came into the premises of the subscriber, Lot No. 8, 3rd Con. of East Whitby, about the 1st of January last, A BROWN MARE rising three. The owner is requested to prove property, pay charges and take her away. James Ross, East Whitby, March 3rd, 1863. 390-w

 

Mar 63 1

March 18, 1863
Oshawa Grammar School
We are glad to learn that this Institution is now FULL of pupils, every desk being fully occupied. This speaks well for ability and test of Professor Lumsden to whose zeal and preservation the possession of a Grammar School by our village is almost wholly attributable.

 

B.C.S.S Anniversary
We are happy to learn that the second anniversary of the Bible Christian Sabbath School.

Oshawa was a complete success in every respect. The attendance was very large, the preparations and performance were good, and the income, after paying the expenses, something like $50. The provision of eatables was abundant, so much that notwithstanding the large company fed, a considerable quantity was disposed of by auction at the close of the proceedings. This will no doubt prove a welcome addition of the funds of the school, and evinces on the part of the members with which the school is connected, a lively interest in the welfare of their “nursery”—one worthy of imitation elsewhere.

Mar 63 2

March 25, 1863
Save Your Teeth – How to do it
Mr. Beccher, who is something of a physiologist, as well as a theologist, farmer, editor, author, lecturer and reformer generally, says, “Our teeth decay. Hence unseemly mouths, bad breath, imperfect mastication. Everybody regrets it. What is the cause? It is a want of cleanliness. A clean tooth never decays. The mouth is a warm place—98 degrees. Particles of meat between the teeth decompose. Gums and teeth must suffer. Cleanliness will preserve the teeth to old age….

Sugar, acids, salertus are nothing compared to food left in the teeth. Mercury may loosen the teeth, use may wear them out, but keep them clean and they will never decay. This advice is worth more than a thousand dollars to each boy and girl. Books have been written on this subject. This brief article contains all that is essential.

 

LOST
In Oshawa, on Friday the 27th, a BLACK WOOL VEIL with lilac flowers on it. Any person leaving the same at the Vindicator office, will confer a favor upon the owner. March 4th, 1863.

 

“Shall I Learn to Dance?”
Certainly, by all means. Commence with the ‘quickstep’ out of bed in the morning and keep it up until the ‘chores’ are all finished. The boys of course will have a ‘cow drill’, while the girls are engaged in a ‘country dance’, in the kitchen. After this, all hands ‘change’, and ‘promenade’ to school, keeping step to the music of merry laughter. Repeat the same of the way home at night, with an occasional variation by ‘tripping the toe’, and having a ‘break down’ in the snow bank. A ‘reel’ now and then will be quite in place for the girls who have learned to spin, but the boys should never think of it. If these and kindred dances are thoroughly [practiced] they will leave little time and no necessity for the polkas, schottisches, rnd (sic) other immodest fooleries of the ball-room.